Recent Changes

Monday, May 24

  1. page Class Questions from May 25 edited 1. Explain why Gregor Mendel is often referred to as the father of Genetics 2. Describe the experi…
    1. Explain why Gregor Mendel is often referred to as the father of Genetics
    2. Describe the experiments carried out by Mendel. Your answer should include his choice of organism and why this choice was critical to his success, and how his work shows successful scientific technique.
    ...
    these results.
    4.

    4.
    Discuss the
    ...
    its publication.
    5. Define genotype and phenotype
    6. What do the terms heterozygous and homozygous mean?
    ...
    your answer.
    8. Use an example of dominant and recessive alleles to explain phenotype
    (view changes)
    8:30 pm
  2. page Class Questions from May 25 edited 1. Explain why Gregor Mendel is often referred to as the father of Genetics 2. Describe the exper…
    1. Explain why Gregor Mendel is often referred to as the father of Genetics
    2. Describe the experiments carried out by Mendel. Your answer should include his choice of organism and why this choice was critical to his success, and how his work shows successful scientific technique.
    3. One of Mendel's first experiments involved crossing a true-breeding tall pea plant with a true-breeding dwarf pea plant. He then crossed two of the offspring. Draw a flow chart to show each of these crosses and outline how Mendel explained these results.
    4. Discuss the publication of Mendel's work, how it was received at the time and why it was eventually recognised 30 years after its publication.
    5. Define genotype and phenotype
    6. What do the terms heterozygous and homozygous mean?
    7. Define allele and gene using examples to illustrate your answer.
    8. Use an example of dominant and recessive alleles to explain phenotype

    (view changes)
    8:30 pm

Wednesday, March 31

  1. page Vaccination Task edited net4We will be undertaking the following task, 'borrowed' from CSU HSC Online. process, analyse an…
    net4We will be undertaking the following task, 'borrowed' from CSU HSC Online. process, analyse and present information from secondary sources to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing the spread and occurrence of once common diseases, including small pox, diphtheria and polio
    Background
    Vaccination gives artificially acquired immunity from a disease. Once common diseases, such as small pox, diphtheria and polio, are now uncommon because of successful vaccination programs. Smallpox was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed. Edward Jenner did this in 1796. The vaccination program that was started in the 1960s was so successful that the World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared it eradicated. Diphtheria vaccine is given as part of a triple antigen injection that protects against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough. In 1990, WHO stated that 80% of children had been vaccinated against this disease. There continues to be outbreaks of this disease and continued vaccination is recommended. It is no longer thought of as a major child killer. Polio caused thousands of children to become paralysed every year. A vaccine was introduced in 1955. It became available as an oral vaccine in the 1960s. Worldwide, the number of cases is down by 80%.
    Use the Internet, biology text books and encyclopedias to gather information on the use of vaccines over the last 200 years and on the use of vaccines in controlling common diseases. Make sure you gather information on small pox, diphtheria and polio. Numerical data or graphs are particularly useful for the evaluation purposes.
    Assess the reliability of secondary information and data by considering information from various sources. This is an ideal opportunity to process claims about the effectiveness of vaccination made in the mass media.
    Analyse information by identifying trends or contradictions.
    Present your findings as an evaluation report. Consider such aspects as how vaccination programs are implemented in Australia and different parts of the world. Discuss the problems associated with producing and using vaccines, especially in less developed countries. Comment on the effectiveness of vaccination. Consider using graphs to demonstrate the points you make.

    (view changes)
    5:46 pm

Sunday, February 28

  1. page The History Of Malaria edited This is the History of malaria (it's borrowed from a friend of mine) Malaria is probably one of t…
    This is the History of malaria (it's borrowed from a friend of mine)
    Malaria is probably one of the oldest diseases known to mankind. Man and Malaria
    seem to have evolved together and it has been known to mankind for millennia. It
    was always part of the ups and downs of nations; of wars and of upheavals.
    Mentions of this disease can be found in the ancient Chinese, Indian and
    Egyptian manuscripts. The disease supposedly had its origins in the jungles of
    Africa, where it is still very much rampant.
    Charaka and Sushrutha, the two leading lights of Indian System of
    Medicine, ''Ayurveda', gave vivid descriptions of malaria and even
    associated it with the bites of the mosquitoes.
    In 1640, Huan del Vego first employed the tincture of the cinchona bark
    for treating malaria, although the aborigines of Peru and Ecuador had been
    using it even earlier for treating fevers.
    In 1696 Morton presented the first detailed description of the clinical
    picture of malaria and its treatment with cinchona.
    Lancisi (1717) linked malaria with poisonous vapours of swamps and thus
    originated the name malaria, meaning bad air.
    In 1816, Gize studied extraction of crystalline quinine from the cinchona
    bark and in 1820, Pelletier and Caventou extracted pure quinine alkaloids.
    In 1880, Laveran, a French physician working in Algeria, first identified
    the causative agent for human malaria.
    He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907.
    In 1885, Golgi identified P. vivax and P. malariae.
    Sakharov in 1889 and Marchiafava and Celli in 1890 identified P.
    falciparum.
    In 1891, Romanowsky described staining methods for identifying malarial
    parasites.
    In 1891, Ehrlich discovered the mild anti malarial activity of methylene
    blue.
    In 1894, Manson hypothesised that mosquitoes transmit malaria.
    On August 20th, 1897, Sir Ronald Ross, while working as a military
    physician in India, demonstrated the malarial oocysts in the gut tissue of
    female Anopheles mosquito, thus proving the fact that Anopheline
    mosquitoes were the vectors for malaria. That day is observed as Mosquito
    Day. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1902. (Ross never aspired to be a
    physician, he wanted to be a writer. His father forced him to join
    medicine!)
    In 1928, Schuleman, Schonhofer and Wingler synthesised Plasmoquine
    In 1930, Mietzsch, Mauss and Hecht obtained atebrine and Knunyants and
    Chelintsev synthesised acriquine.
    In 1939, Paul Muller discovered the insecticidal properties of DDT.
    In 1944, Curd, Davey and Rose synthesised proguanil for treating
    falciparum malaria.
    During World War II research into antimalarials was intensified.
    Chloroquine, one of the most important antimalarials, was synthesised and
    studied under the name of Resochin by the Germans as early as 1934.
    In 1948, Short, Garnham, Covell and Shute (England) identified tissue
    forms of P. vivax in the liver. Tissue stages of P. falciparum (Short et
    al., 1949), P. ovale (Garnham et al., 1954), and P. malariae (Bray, 1959)
    were also identified later on.
    In 1950 Elderfield of USA synthesised primaquine.
    In 1976 - 78, Lysenko et al formulated a theory on the polymorphism of P.
    vivax sporozoites, and by 1982, after 100 years of the discovery of the
    parasite, Bray and Garnham proposed that some sporozoites in the liver
    remain latent (hypnozoites), causing relapses later on.
    Mefloquine was discovered by the American researchers during the Vietnam
    war.
    In 1987, Dr. Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, a Colombian biochemist, developed the
    first synthetic vaccine against the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. Its
    efficacy is yet to be proved.

    (view changes)
    1:05 pm
  2. page home edited Recent Update: As promised, I folks, I have compiled included a series of questions histo…
    Recent Update:
    As promised, I
    folks,
    I
    have compiledincluded a series of questionshistory on each of the topics covered intreatment of Malaria on this wikispace. You can choosepage. See the depth with which you answer each question.
    Email me should you have any problems between now and next week.
    left-hand browser icon entitled 'the history of malaria'
    The Search for Better Health
    When physiological processes malfunction, the body tries to repair the damage. The process is similar in all living things and it is only when the process fails to contain the damage that disease can be recognised.Humans have long recognised the symptoms of disease both in themselves and the animals and plants around them. Since the beginnings of recorded history, they have noted the signs that reveal that the body is malfunctioning. Increasing understanding of the causes of disease together with accompanying advances in technology have changed approaches to treatment and management of disease.The search for measures to treat and manage diseases of humans and othe
    (view changes)
    1:02 pm

Sunday, February 21

Thursday, February 18

  1. page Pathogens & Their Spread edited ... Phagocytosis · Some white blood cells, called macrophages and neutrophils, can very easily ch…
    ...
    Phagocytosis
    · Some white blood cells, called macrophages and neutrophils, can very easily change their shape so that they flow around particles and completely enclose them within their cell, where they are broken up by cell enzymes. This is called phagocytosis.
    · //http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__phagocytosis.html//
    · e.g. white blood cell engulfing a large, liquid protein droplet.
    Lymph System
    ...
    · encyclopedia.farlex.com/pathogenic
    · www.spice.centers.ufl.edu/.../ If%20I%20Ruled%20the%20World%20lesson%201.doc
    QUESTIONS:
    1. DESCRIBE the conditions under which an organism is considered a pathogen.
    2. THE body has three lines of defence against disease. List each and evaluate their effectiveness at protecting the body against disease (the specific defences itemised in the table above can be categories into three broader groupd. You'll need to do this in order to answer this question).

    (view changes)
    3:47 am
  2. page Types of Pathogens edited ... · Creutzfeldt – Jakob in humans Viruses ... of protein). {http://media-2.web.brit…
    ...
    · Creutzfeldt – Jakob in humans
    Viruses
    ...
    of protein).
    {http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/17/95417-034-34ECC2D5.jpg}
    All viruses composed of nuclear material, DNA or RNA surrounded by an outer protein coat.
    ...
    Mudie, K. Heinemann Biology, Reed International Books Australia, Victoria, 2000.
    Google Images
    QUESTIONS:
    1. DRAW A TABLE WHICH DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN PRIONS, VIRUSES, BACTERIA, PROTOZOANS, FUNGI AND MACRO-PARASITES, NAMING AN EXAMPLE OF EACH (IE, a brief version of the above).

    (view changes)
    3:41 am
  3. page Malaria edited Trace the historical development of our understanding of the cause and prevention of malaria (make …
    Trace the historical development of our understanding of the cause and prevention of malaria (make sure you tell us lots about the disease).
    MALARIA
    ...
    the disease.
    History
    1880 - discovery of the malaria parasite
    ...
    causes malaria.
    1897 - discovery that mosquitoes transmit malaria
    On 20 August 1897, Ronald Ross, a British officer in the Indian Medical Service was the first to demonstrate that malaria parasites could be transmitted from infected patients to mosquitoes. He found cysts in the stomach walls of the mosquito Anopheles and identified the cysts as the malaria causing parasited. He also demonstrated in his investigations of bird malaria that mosquitoes could transmit malaria parasites from bird to bird. Ross was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery in 1902.
    ...
    A group of Italian scientists (G. Grassi, A. Bignami, G. Bastianelli, A. Dionisi, A. Celli) confirmed that human malaria parasites pass through the same developmental stages in the mosquito as the bird parasites observed by Ross.
    1948 - discovery of the malaria parasite in human tissue
    ...
    malaria species.
    Symptoms
    Symptoms will usually appear 10-15 days after being bitten but depending on the plasmodium it can range between 9 days and 30 days. Some strains of the Plasmodium vivas might take up to nine months before they start showing symptoms.
    ...
    Malarial Retinopathy,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2367432/ accessed Feb 2, 2010
    Sumanas Inc, "Plasmodium, The Malaria Parasite", Available at http://www.sumanasinc.com/scienceinfocus/sif_malaria.html. Accessed Feb 2, 2010
    QUESTIONS:
    1. DRAW a timeline showing how our understanding of the cause and prevention of malaria has progressed.
    2. CONCTRUCT a simple flow diagram outlining the plasmodium life cycle (you can use your class notes to help with this).

    (view changes)
    3:23 am
  4. page Antibiotics & Resistance edited as taken from : http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/ucm134…

    as taken from : http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/ucm134455.htm
    To view the animation, click: http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/ucm134359.htm
    ...
    When a phage infects a bacterium, it essentially takes over the bacteria's genetic processes to produce more phage.
    During this process, bacterial DNA may inadvertently be incorporated into the new phage DNA. Upon bacterial death and lysis (or breaking apart), these new phage go on to infect other bacteria.This brings along genes from the previously infected bacterium.
    QUESTIONS
    1. SOME bacteria have ways of tolerating treatment by antibiotics and are termed 'superbugs'.
    a) explain what is meant by antibiotic resistance in bactieria.
    b) Explain why a course of antibiotics should be finished completely, even when the symptoms of the infection have gone.
    3. EXPLAIN the advantages and disadvantages of using a broad spectrum drug on unidentified bacterial infection.
    4. ALTHOUGH there ar ea few drugs that have some success in controlling viruses, antibiotics are ineffective. Explain why antibiotics do not work against viruses.
    5. OUTLINE the different processes of developing antimicrobial resistance.

    (view changes)
    3:18 am

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